Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
http://www.trends.periodikos.com.br/article/doi/10.47626/2237-6089-2021-0427
Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Original Article

Tobacco cessation in patients with multiple chronic conditions: nutritional strategies as an additional tool in treatment

Marcela Melquíades de Melo, Arthur da Silva Gomes, Thayzis de Paula Silva, Arise Garcia de Siqueira Galil, André Netto Bastos, Aline Silva de Aguiar

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Abstract

Objective
To evaluate the impacts of a nutritional education intervention for patients with multiple chronic conditions during smoking cessation.

Methods
The non-probabilistic sample comprised 18 adults and seniors of both sexes recruited from a smoking cessation treatment group. At the beginning of treatment, smoking history, degree of dependence, and stage of motivation were assessed. Degree of craving was evaluated weekly for the 1st month. Anthropometric and biochemical assessments were conducted at baseline, at 1 month, and at 3 months. Dietary intake was assessed with the “How is your diet?” questionnaire. The nutritional intervention was delivered in three sessions. The themes covered were energy balance and physical activity, healthy eating, and the importance of fruit and vegetables in the diet. Statistical analysis was conducted with the Shapiro Wilk test of normality, the paired t test, and the Wilcoxon or Mann-Whitney U tests (significance ≤ 0.05).

Results
Most people (55.6%) in the intervention group had a high degree of smoking dependence, while the frequency in the control group was 22.2%. Degree of craving decreased significantly after 1 month of treatment (p = 0.017). After 3 months, both groups had a positive variation in mean body weight, although below 3%. In both groups, the average percentage of weight gain was less than 3%, suggesting that delivery of the nutritional education sessions and the nutritionist’s use of the protocol proposed by the Instituto Nacional de Câncer (INCA) helped to control weight gain. Blood glucose and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) both increased significantly in the intervention group (p = 0.15 and p = 0.50, respectively).

Conclusion
Greater proximity and more frequent intervention by a nutritionist assists and encourages healthy eating practices during the smoking cessation process, which can benefit individuals’ control of chronic diseases over the long term.

Keywords

Chronic diseases; smoking; smoking cessation; nutrition; food and nutrition education

Submitted date:
10/28/2021

Accepted date:
07/15/2022

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