Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Original Article

Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the Iowa-Netherlands Comparison Orientation Measure for the Brazilian context

Gessyka Wanglon Veleda, Giulia Rodrigues Seoane, Gabriely Ribeiro Ezequiel, Caroline Machado Ferreira, Vera Lúcia Marques de Figueiredo, Tharso de Souza Meyer, Jaciana Marlova Gonçalves Araújo, Luciana Rizo, Taiane de Azevedo Cardoso, Kyara Rodrigues de Aguiar, Luciano Dias de Mattos Souza

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The Iowa-Netherlands Comparison Orientation Measure (INCOM) was developed to measure individual differences in social comparison orientation and has been widely used in research and various different settings.

The aim of this study was to adapt the online version of the INCOM and to evaluate its psychometric parameters when applied to a Brazilian population of university students.

The procedures were divided into two steps: step 1 – cross-cultural adaptation and analysis of content validity, and step 2 – assessment of psychometric characteristics. Step 1 comprised the processes of translation, evaluation by an expert committee, evaluation by the target population, and back-translation. For step 2, 1,065 university students were recruited and then factor analysis, analysis of reliability, and analysis of validity based on external measures were performed.

The adaptation process yielded satisfactory results, including good indicators of content validity. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a two-dimensional structure and adequate factor loadings, except for item 11, which was excluded from the final version. Additionally, the final version of the scale had adequate fit indices (χ2 = 148.45, degrees of freedom [df] = 26; p < 0.001; root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = 0.06; comparative fit index [CFI] = 0.99; and Tucker-Lewis index [TLI] = 0.98). Evidence of reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.83) was observed and there were positive correlations with negative affect (r = 0.36) and negative correlations with positive affect and self-esteem (r = -0.15; r = -0.41, respectively).

The Brazilian version of the INCOM presents satisfactory psychometric parameters and can thus be used to measure social comparison orientation.


INCOM; cross-cultural adaptation, validity, reliability, factor analysis

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